Tj 166.44 0 TD -0.0324 Tc 0.5424 Tw (e. which lines) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -166.44 -11.76 TD -0.0092 Tc 0.0392 Tw (in which files the correction of a certain bug affected.) 4. There is no substitute for a human reviewer, but even humans can’t analyze the entire code repositories to give a definitive answer. Since it deals with the degree to which an application may be understood, repaired, or enhanced, it also takes into account the overall cost of the project. Chidamber, S. R., & Kemerer, C. F. (1994). Software complexity metrics, for example, rarely measure the "inherent complexity" embedded in software systems, but they do a very good job of comparing the relative complexity of one portion of a system with another. Tj 88.2 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj 17796 endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 6 0 R /F1 8 0 R /F2 10 0 R /F3 17 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 21 0 R >> stream 2. Tj 60.96 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -60.96 -18.96 TD /F0 11.04 Tf 0 Tw (3.3) Tj 13.8 0 TD ( ) Tj 7.2 0 TD 0.0131 Tc -0.0131 Tw (Which Systems?) 84–87. Bad code requires a larger effort and costs more to adapt to new requirements. Software metrics, Halstead measure, maintainability, modifiability, software architecture, software deterioration. A high value means better maintainability. But among them there are few most useful metrics which are most essential in software quality measurement. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. Another problem is that if we follow this) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -55.08 -11.76 TD -0.0159 Tc 0.5709 Tw (approach and try to measure maintainability as \223effort\224, we) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0195 Tc 0.6015 Tw (should bear in mind that the common unit for effort, \223man) Tj 236.88 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj -236.88 -11.76 TD -0.0216 Tc 0.0316 Tw (month\224, is in itself very dubious ) Tj 130.44 0 TD 0.0489 Tc 0 Tw ([8]) Tj 11.76 0 TD 0.03 Tc (.) Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews with the CS Theory Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. Software architecture metrics by Andrew Hamel Law – Tech Principal @ThoughtWorks; Nicole Forsgren et al’s Four key metrics,as described in the book Accelerate, and called out as ‘Adopt’ in the Thoughtworks Radar, differentiate between low, medium and high performing technology organisations: lead time, deployment frequency, mean time to restore (MTTR) and change fail percentage. Tj 92.16 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -142.56 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([17] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0103 Tc 1.8703 Tw (Kazman R., Abowd G., Bass L., and Clements P.,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0063 Tc 0 Tw (Scenario) Tj 34.92 0 TD 0.0433 Tc (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD -0.0199 Tc 2.4899 Tw (Based Analysis of ) Tj 2.3822 Tc 0 Tw (S) Tj 87.6 0 TD -0.0124 Tc 2.4424 Tw (oftware Architecture,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -125.76 -11.76 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0207 Tc 0.0093 Tw (IEEE Software) Tj 59.76 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0082 Tc 0.0218 Tw (, volume 13, issue 6, 1996.) Following the) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.011 Tc 0.101 Tw (opinion that maintainability \223is the set of attributes that bear ) Tj T* -0.0056 Tc 0.5328 Tw (on the effort needed to make specified modifications\224) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 220.8 0 TD 0.0517 Tc 0 Tw ([16]) Tj 16.8 0 TD 0.03 Tc (, ) Tj -237.6 -11.76 TD -0.0046 Tc 0.5896 Tw (we describe maintainability according to this approach as a) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0103 Tc 2.4403 Tw (function of directly measurable attributes) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 178.44 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0344 Tc 0 Tw (A) Tj 6.12 -1.56 TD /F1 6.48 Tf 0 Tc (1) Tj 3.24 1.56 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0208 Tc 2.3308 Tw ( through) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 40.44 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0344 Tc 0 Tw (A) Tj 6.12 -1.56 TD /F1 6.48 Tf 0 Tc (n) Tj 3.24 1.56 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.03 Tc (, ) Tj -237.6 -11.76 TD -0.016 Tc 0.046 Tw (that is:) Tj 26.76 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -13.2 -15.84 TD /F2 9.96 Tf -0.0382 Tc 0.0682 Tw (M = f\(A) Tj 32.16 -1.56 TD /F2 6.48 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw (1) Tj 3.24 1.56 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0322 Tc -0.0022 Tw (, A) Tj 11.16 -1.56 TD /F2 6.48 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw (2) Tj 3.24 1.56 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.03 Tc 0 Tw (, \205, A) Tj 25.08 -1.56 TD /F2 6.48 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw (n) Tj 3.24 1.56 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0433 Tc (\)) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 131.88 0 TD /F0 9.96 Tf 0.0489 Tc 0 Tw (\(1\)) Tj 11.76 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -238.56 -15.72 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.005 Tc 0.155 Tw (On an informal level, this approach is quite appealing ) Tj 217.68 0 TD 0.06 Tc 0 Tw (\226) Tj 5.04 0 TD -0.0153 Tc 0.0853 Tw ( it is ) Tj -222.72 -11.76 TD -0.0232 Tc 0.8632 Tw (intuitive that a maintainable system must be e.g. More related articles in Software Engineering, We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. Based on the MIL-HDBK-472 standard, Relyence Maintainability Prediction enables you to optimally design your maintenance … They are –, Now let’s understand each quality metrics in detail –. BT 54 710.64 TD 0 0 0 rg /F1 9.96 Tf 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([16] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0107 Tc 0.5207 Tw (ISO/IEC, Information technology) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj 137.76 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD -0.0016 Tc 0.2716 Tw ( Software product ) Tj -141 -11.76 TD -0.027 Tc -0.183 Tw (quality ) Tj 30.12 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0063 Tc 0.0987 Tw ( Part 1: Quality model, report ISO/IEC FDIS ) Tj -33.36 -11.76 TD 0.06 Tc 0 Tw (9126) Tj 20.16 0 TD 0.0433 Tc (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0409 Tc -0.0109 Tw (1:2000 \(E\), ISO, 2000.) Software is more easily maintainable if it has high-quality code that is readable and well-documented, so keep good coding practices in mind while … Productivity depends on the time you spend on tasks and other in-house activities. %PDF-1.2 %���� tioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are develop-ing or changing. They do not in) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0342 Tc 7.6542 Tw (any way guide in how to estimate or measure) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0184 Tc 0 Tw (maintainabilit) Tj 55.08 0 TD -0.0263 Tc 1.6613 Tw (y. In this chapter from his book on software quality engineering, Stephen H. Kan discusses several metrics in each of three groups of software quality metrics: product quality, in-process quality, and maintenance quality. Changes to the hardware, operating system, software dependencies, and organizational business rules and policies are handled in adaptive maintenance. Watch Queue Queue. Software Quality is measured based on some software quality metrics. [71] Olatunji S O, Rasheed Z, Sattar K A, Al-Mana A M, Alshayeb M, El-Sebakhy E A. Tj 57.48 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -121.44 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 6.24 0 TD 0.0489 Tc -0.0189 Tw ([7] ) Tj 14.28 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0 Tc 3.4932 Tw (Bosch, J. and Bengtsson, P., An Experiment on) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0063 Tc 4.0683 Tw (Creating Scenario Profiles for Software Change,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0337 Tc 3.5963 Tw (report ISSN 1103) Tj 78 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0418 Tc 3.5882 Tw (1581, Depar) Tj 53.28 0 TD -0.0307 Tc 3.6007 Tw (tment of Software) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -134.52 -11.76 TD -0.0143 Tc 2.9243 Tw (Engineering and Computer Science, University of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0047 Tc 0.0253 Tw (Karlskrona/Ronneby, 1999.) Tj 9 0 TD ( ) Tj 7.2 0 TD 0.0044 Tc -0.0044 Tw (WHAT IS MAINTAINABILITY?) The authors define metrics for measuring the maintainability of a target software system and discuss how those metrics can be combined into a single index of maintainability. So it is important to measure that the end user is happy or not by using this software. The software is able to provide exact service in the right time or not is checked. We will also compare) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.2056 Tc 0 Tw (me) Tj 12 0 TD -0.009 Tc 1.194 Tw (asurements on the lexical level and on the architectural) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -12 -11.76 TD -0.002 Tc 0 Tw (level.) Tj 66.12 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -93.12 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([12] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0226 Tc 8.6326 Tw (Grady R.B., Successfully Applying Software) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0103 Tc 0.0197 Tw (Metrics, ) Tj 35.52 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0222 Tc 0.0078 Tw (IEEE Computer) Tj 64.2 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0082 Tc 0.0218 Tw (, volume 27, issue 9, 1994.) A red ratin… It also proposes a maintainability model that is based on the analysis of the relationship between object-oriented metrics and maintainability. consistent) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0159 Tc 2.6709 Tw (and simple. So if the software product provides easy maintainability then we can say software quality is up to mark. Maintainability – Each software product requires maintenance and up gradation. Software maintainability metrics based on the index system and fuzzy method. After we have collected data throughout a) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0226 Tc 3.0526 Tw (long hist) Tj 37.44 0 TD -0.0355 Tc 3.0255 Tw (ory of at least two systems, we will focus on) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -37.44 -11.76 TD 0.0023 Tc 0.0277 Tw (several related questions:) Tj 100.8 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -100.8 -16.32 TD /F4 9.96 Tf -0.0216 Tc 0 Tw (\267) Tj 4.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 13.44 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0094 Tc 2.8337 Tw (Can the changes in maintainability be correlated to) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0035 Tc 0.1535 Tw (descriptions of the logical changes done? Attention reader! Tj 49.44 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -192.36 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 6.24 0 TD 0.0489 Tc -0.0189 Tw ([2] ) Tj 14.28 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD 0.0047 Tc 3.372 Tw (Ash D., Alderete J., Yao L., Oman P. W., and) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0209 Tc 1.0109 Tw (Lowther B., "Using software maint) Tj 143.52 0 TD -0.0177 Tc 1.0077 Tw (ainability models) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -143.52 -11.76 TD 0.0126 Tc 7.4574 Tw (to track code health", In) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 135.6 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0232 Tc 7.3268 Tw ( Proceedings of) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -135.6 -11.76 TD 0.024 Tc 0.846 Tw (International Conference on Software Maintenance) Tj 210.36 0 TD /F3 9.96 Tf -0.0089 Tc 0 Tw (, ) Tj -210.36 -11.76 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0447 Tc -0.0147 Tw (IEEE, 1994.) SAAM) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 42.84 0 TD 0.0494 Tc 0 Tw ([3,19]) Tj 24.36 0 TD 0.0059 Tc 3.3841 Tw ( and) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -219.84 -11.76 TD -0.0106 Tc 0.0406 Tw (ATAM ) Tj 39.72 0 TD 0.0517 Tc 0 Tw ([20]) Tj 16.8 0 TD -0.0011 Tc 7.8711 Tw ( are general scenario) Tj 105.84 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0144 Tc (bas) Tj 13.32 0 TD -0.0013 Tc 7.8313 Tw (ed evaluation) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -178.92 -11.76 TD -0.0254 Tc 5.284 Tw (techniques with which any quality attributes can be) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0073 Tc 4.683 Tw (estimated on the architectural level; these have been) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0066 Tc 5.7034 Tw (reported useful in practice) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 129.72 0 TD 0.0496 Tc 0 Tw ([3,18,21]) Tj 36.96 0 TD 0.03 Tc (.) the IEEE International) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0066 Tc 0.0366 Tw (Conference ) Tj 51 0 TD -0.0078 Tc 2.6178 Tw (on Software Maintenance, ICSM\). There is a number of metrics available based on which software quality is measured. Software Quality and Maintainability. Software engineering. Maintainability is reflected in availability metrics. Static Analysis of Code Halstead’s Software Physics or Software Science n1 = no. Tj 107.4 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -234.12 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([13] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD 0.015 Tc 4.455 Tw (Halstead M. H.,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 79.44 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0085 Tc 4.4015 Tw (Elements of Softwa) Tj 85.44 0 TD 0.0195 Tc 4.3305 Tw (re Science,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -164.88 -11.76 TD 0.0201 Tc 8.0499 Tw (Operating, and Programming Systems Series) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0332 Tc -0.0032 Tw (Volume 7) Tj 38.16 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0221 Tc 0.0079 Tw (, Elsevier, 1977.) Maintainability metrics include time requires to adapt to a new features/functionality, Mean Time to Change (MTTC), performance in changed environments etc. IEEE. Keywords: software maintainability, technical debt, metrics Language: English 2. Therefore, a big question is how to) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0243 Tc 1.8543 Tw (make component) Tj 69.84 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD -0.0121 Tc 1.7461 Tw (based systems maintainable, and as part) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -73.08 -11.76 TD -0.0119 Tc 3.4819 Tw (of that we must be prepared to measure and estimate) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 263.88 629.28 TD -0.0124 Tc 0.7795 Tw (maintainability on the architectural level when source code) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0408 Tc 1.3908 Tw (is no) Tj 20.4 0 TD -0.0046 Tc 1.2346 Tw ( longer available. Code Metrics Estimate number of bugs left in code. Tj 71.28 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -89.28 -16.32 TD /F4 9.96 Tf -0.0216 Tc 0 Tw (\267) Tj 4.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 13.44 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0068 Tc 0.5301 Tw (To make it possible to investigate the changes made to) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0151 Tc 1.8901 Tw (a system, it should have been developed using some) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0193 Tc 0.7543 Tw (sort of revision control system, from which any earlier) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.017 Tc 0 Tw (versio) Tj 24.36 0 TD -0.0129 Tc 2.8295 Tw (n of the system can be retrieved. This metric is obtained by counting the number of independent execution paths inside a method or function. Tj 221.76 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -239.76 -16.32 TD /F4 9.96 Tf -0.0216 Tc 0 Tw (\267) Tj 4.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 13.44 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0166 Tc 1.4466 Tw (There should also be a way of tracking how physical) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0 Tc 0.5335 Tw (changes correspond to logical changes; i.) Also, these measures were rather designed for cost) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0171 Tc 4.7271 Tw (estimations \(befo) Tj 73.44 0 TD 0.0059 Tc 4.6041 Tw (re source code is available\) than of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -73.44 -11.76 TD -0.0314 Tc 0.0614 Tw (performing measurements.) Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, generate link and share the link here. Tj 79.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -79.32 -15.72 TD -0.0228 Tc 1.0278 Tw (There are other \223complexity measures\224, which we will not) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0151 Tc 5.0508 Tw (use: neither the Function Point measure of software) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.03 Tc -0.18 Tw (complexity ) Tj 48.72 0 TD 0.0509 Tc 0 Tw ([11,30]) Tj 29.4 0 TD 0.001 Tc 1.589 Tw (, the Object Point measure included in) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -78.12 -11.76 TD -0.0091 Tc 0.5591 Tw (the COCOMO 2 method) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 102.72 0 TD 0.0517 Tc 0 Tw ([11]) Tj 16.8 0 TD 0.0053 Tc 0.5047 Tw (, nor DeMarco\222s specification) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -119.52 -11.76 TD -0.0256 Tc 7.2556 Tw (weight metrics \(\223bang metrics\224\)) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 158.76 0 TD 0.0517 Tc 0 Tw ([1) Tj 8.4 0 TD (1]) Tj 8.4 0 TD 0.0034 Tc 7.2266 Tw (, are directly) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj -175.56 -11.76 TD -0 Tc 2.8806 Tw (measurable from source code. ISO/IEC 9126).Closely related concepts in the software engineering domain are evolvability, modifiability, technical debt, and code smells. Even if a metric is not a measurement (metrics are functions, while measurements are the numbers obtained by the application of metrics), often the two terms are used as synonyms. But among them there are few most useful metrics which are most essential in software quality measurement. A green rating is between 20 and 100 and indicates that the code has good maintainability. Tj 7.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -134.28 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([24] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0086 Tc 0.1453 Tw (Oman, P., Hagemeister, J., and Ash, D., A Definition ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0074 Tc 1.6454 Tw (and Taxonomy for Software Maintainability, report) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0279 Tc 0.0021 Tw (SETL Report 91) Tj 66.24 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.06 Tc (08) Tj 10.08 0 TD 0.0433 Tc (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0098 Tc 0.0202 Tw (TR, University of Idaho, 1991.) If it is true that the) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -98.76 -11.76 TD -0.027 Tc 0.987 Tw (system decays continuously, we should get a graph similar) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0051 Tc 0.0051 Tw (to the one in ) Tj 52.08 0 TD -0.0143 Tc 0.0443 Tw (Figure ) Tj 28.44 0 TD 0.06 Tc 0 Tw (1) Tj 5.04 0 TD 0.03 Tc (.) In software engineering, these activities are known as software maintenance (cf. ACM, 26(11), 197-211. However,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -51 -11.76 TD -0.0166 Tc 1.2732 Tw (you cannot control what you cannot measure, and there is) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0248 Tc 6.7948 Tw (yet no universal measure of maintainability. Deep Learning Approach for Software Maintainability Metrics Prediction Abstract: Software maintainability predicts changes or failures that may occur in software after it has been deployed. He also describes the key metrics used by several major software developers and discusses software metrics data collection. The idea of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -173.4 -11.76 TD -0.0101 Tc 0.302 Tw (comparing a measure before and after a change is made has ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0014 Tc 1.2286 Tw (been discussed) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 64.44 0 TD 0.0494 Tc 0 Tw ([2,10]) Tj 24.36 0 TD -0.0272 Tc 1.2058 Tw (; however, we have not seen a study) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj -88.8 -11.76 TD -0.0099 Tc 1.4799 Tw (like the one we are describing in this paper, investigating) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.013 Tc 0.043 Tw (changes over a long sequence of changes.) Tj 166.08 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -166.08 -15.72 TD -0.0151 Tc 0.3384 Tw (We will perform measurements on the architectural level as ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0214 Tc 0.0514 Tw (well \(this is des) Tj 62.04 0 TD 0.007 Tc -0.017 Tw (cribed in section ) Tj 68.52 0 TD 0.05 Tc 0 Tw (3.2) Tj 12.6 0 TD 0.0367 Tc (\).) Tj 111.24 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -138.24 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([29] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD 0.0076 Tc 6.7424 Tw (SEI Software Tech) Tj 89.28 0 TD -0.0359 Tc 6.6659 Tw (nology Review,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 78.36 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0112 Tc 0.0188 Tw (Cyclomatic ) Tj -167.64 -11.76 TD 0 Tw (Complexity) Tj 45.48 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.022 Tc 0.052 Tw (, URL: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/, 2002) Tj 152.64 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -225.12 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([30] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0169 Tc 2.4069 Tw (SEI Software Technology Review,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 150.36 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0316 Tc 2.2784 Tw (Function Point) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -150.36 -11.76 TD 0.0107 Tc 0 Tw (Analysis) Tj 33.84 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.022 Tc 0.052 Tw (, URL: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/, 2002) Tj 152.64 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -213.48 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([31] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0169 Tc 9.0469 Tw (SEI Software Technology Review,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 177 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0193 Tc 0.0107 Tw (Halstead ) Tj -177 -11.76 TD 0.0082 Tc 49.4618 Tw (Complexity Measures) Tj 136.2 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0198 Tc 49.3698 Tw (, URL:) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -136.2 -11.76 TD -0.0738 Tc 0 Tw (http://www) Tj 44.64 0 TD 0.0062 Tc 0.0238 Tw (.sei.cmu.edu/, 2002) Tj 77.88 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -149.52 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([32] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0169 Tc 2.5269 Tw (SEI Software Technology Review,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 150.84 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0199 Tc 0.0101 Tw (Maintainability ) Tj -150.84 -11.76 TD 0.0242 Tc 11.9758 Tw (Index Technique for Measuring Program) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0199 Tc 0 Tw (Maintainability) Tj 62.28 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0333 Tc 10.5033 Tw (, URL: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -62.28 -11.76 TD 0.06 Tc 0 Tw (2002) Tj 20.16 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -47.16 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([33] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0072 Tc 3.7572 Tw (Shaw M. and Garlan D.,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 118.2 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0131 Tc 3.6169 Tw (Software Architecture:) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -118.2 -11.76 TD 0.0175 Tc 2.2025 Tw (Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline) Tj 169.92 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0168 Tc 2.1732 Tw (, Prentice) Tj 39.96 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj -209.88 -11.76 TD 0.0309 Tc -0.0009 Tw (Hall, 1996.) They are – Code Quality; Reliability; Performance; Usability; Correctness; Maintainability; Integrity; Security; Now let’s understand each quality metrics in detail – 1. However, there may be great difficulties in) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0146 Tc 0.5846 Tw (measuring those attributes) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 108.36 0 TD -0.0313 Tc 0.5413 Tw (and weighting them against each) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -108.36 -11.76 TD -0.0173 Tc 0.2188 Tw (other and combine them in a function ) Tj 153 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf -0.0089 Tc 0 Tw (f) Tj 2.76 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0365 Tc 0.1385 Tw (. Why do development teams use metrics to measure quality? 2. 6. Tj 5.88 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -149.04 -18.96 TD /F0 11.04 Tf 0 Tw (3.1) Tj 13.8 0 TD ( ) Tj 7.2 0 TD 0.0289 Tc -0.0289 Tw (Software Deterioration) Tj 109.44 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw ( ) Tj -130.44 -13.8 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0012 Tc 0.6192 Tw (It has been noticed that software deteriorates as it ages and) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0186 Tc 0.6486 Tw (is being maintained) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 82.08 0 TD 0.049 Tc 0 Tw ([3,6,25,33,34]) Tj 57.12 0 TD -0.0187 Tc 0.5887 Tw (; using the vocabulary of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -139.2 -11.76 TD -0.0122 Tc 1.3622 Tw (Fred Brooks, a system\222s) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 103.8 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0222 Tc 1.2078 Tw (conceptual integrity) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 85.32 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0489 Tc 0 Tw ([8]) Tj 11.76 0 TD 0.0153 Tc 1.2147 Tw ( degrades) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -200.88 -11.76 TD -0.014 Tc 2.084 Tw (as changes are made to it. Tj 49.44 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -113.52 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([22] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0039 Tc 0.3189 Tw (Lanning D.L. We present the notion of) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0211 Tc 0.0089 Tw (\223maintainability\224, our h) Tj 98.76 0 TD 0.033 Tc -0.003 Tw (ypotheses, and our approach.) Various software metrics and models have been developed and described. Tj 175.44 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw ( ) Tj -191.64 -14.04 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0134 Tc 2.8034 Tw (Maintainability has previously been described mainly) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj 232.44 0 TD -0.0344 Tc -0.0556 Tw (in ) Tj -232.44 -11.76 TD -0.0248 Tc 2.6148 Tw (two ways, either informally or as a function of directly) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0095 Tc 0.0395 Tw (measurable attributes.) Tj 2.52 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj ET 312 124.68 0.48 0.48 re f 312 124.68 0.48 0.48 re f 312.48 124.68 250.92 0.48 re f 563.4 124.68 0.48 0.48 re f 563.4 124.68 0.48 0.48 re f 312 125.16 0.48 12.6 re f 563.4 125.16 0.48 12.6 re f BT 317.88 111.36 TD /F1 9.96 Tf ( ) Tj 75.6 0 TD ( ) Tj ET 317.88 113.4 144 0.48 re f BT 461.88 111.36 TD ( ) Tj -144 -10.8 TD /F1 6 Tf 0 Tw (2) Tj 3 -3.96 TD /F1 9 Tf -0.0016 Tc 0.4134 Tw ( The \223change\224 dimension could be thought of as \223discrete time\224, ) Tj 4.2 -10.56 TD -0.0165 Tc 0.3629 Tw (with which we mean that a number of changes are implemented ) Tj 0 -10.56 TD -0.0285 Tc 0.0585 Tw (sequentially to a system.)

software maintainability metrics

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